Chandra Shekhar Azad
Information about Chandrashekhar Azad from childhood till his last breath, which includes his education, participation with Gandhi’s movement, his works with other revolutionaries and HRA to HSRA.
Famous Indian freedom fighter Chandra Shekhar Azad is known for his revolutionary act, a fearless fighter, a brilliant marksman, and an embodiment of patriotism, nobility and honor, whose objective was defined. Someone, whom the British feared and despised the most.
Early life Story
Born on 23rd of July 1906 to Pandit Sitaram Tiwari and Jagarani Devi, at Bhabra village, in Central India agency British India now Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh, while Pandit Sitaram Tiwari was in the service of Alirajpur Estate. The birth of a son to the couple brought happiness to their home. Jagrani Devi, was so happy as if she had found a rare gem. Prior to the birth of her son, which was her fifth child, she had already suffered her loss of her three children, so she began to look after her new born son with great care. Due to her acute poverty, she could not even celebrate the occasion. His mother wanted him to become a great Sanskrit scholar that reasoned for his father to send him to Kashi Vidyapeeth, Banaras.
Role of Chandrashekhar Azad in Freedom
Reason for why Azad is so famous starts from here :
Azad migrated to Varanasi to study Sanskrit but the young man was more fascinated by the Non-cooperation Movement of 1921, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and soon took the plunge into the National Movement. He was among the pioneer of the violent revolutionary movement in the country. He was 15 when he joined Non Co-operation movement. Hence he became more aggressive when Gandhiji suspended that movement in 1922 because of the Chauri Chaura incident, wherein many freedom fighters were killed in an open fire laid by the British Soldiers. As a result, he was sent to jail, He was mere Chandrasekhar until he encountered a trial in the court, when the Judge asked him his name, he shouted ‘Azad’ to mean ‘Freedom’, which the Hon. Court did not relish and he was awarded fifteen lashes as the punishment, when again, Chandrasekhar shouted
‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’ with every lash he received, thereupon people started calling him ‘Chandrasekhar Azad’.
Quote No. 1
Agar aap ke lahoo mein rosh nahi hai, to ye paani hai jo aapakee ragon mein bah raha hai. Aisee jawani ka kya matalab agar vo maatrbhoomi ke kaam na aaye.
After that he met Pranvesh Chatterjee who introduced him to Ram Prasad Bismil. Bismil was the founder of Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and Azad joined HRA which was constituted in 1923. Wherein 1920, almost all members of the new revolutionary movement took active part in the Non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji. Amongst them the popular once were Yogesh Chandra Chatterjee, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Jatin Das, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, Yash Pal, Dr. Gaya Prasad, Shiv Varma and Jaydev Kapoor.
HRA to HSRA
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi a journalist and a Dominion of the Indian National Congress and an independence movement activist, received a letter from Nagpur written by a young man named Bhagat Singh who expressed his desire to work in Pratap Publication. Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi ignored such an offer from a young man, instead invited him to come and meet at Kanpur. By that time the pamphlets published by Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) had already been distributed at Lahore. The India's Independence program was almost ready. The new organization HRA had come into existence and its first task was to enroll as many members as possible.
An important meeting of senior revolutionaries of India was held on 8th of December 1928, in the ruins of Feroz Shah Fort, in Delhi. The main agenda was to co-ordinate the working of all the revolutionaries groups functioning in different provinces. Chandrashekhar Azad was the chairperson of the party. But he was exclusively given the name of Army Wing of the party. The party name was changed from Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) by Azad.
Quote No. 2
Doosron ko khud se aage badhte hue mat dekho. Pratidin apne khud ke kirtiman todo, kyuki safalta aapki apne aap se ek ladaai hai.
Collecting Party Fund for Rebellious Activity
To fund the execution of rebellious activities Chandra Shekhar Ajad, Khatri, Roshan Singh and others discussed in a meeting about dacoits. At the time of dacoit special coded words were used for communication. The whole terminology related to dacoit was coined by Ajad himself. A coded message like
‘Gyan jo hai so Brinda’ meant that “the attempt had failed”. The person who took part in dacoit was called Gyan and he who did not know how to commit dacoit was known as Bhagat. An expert in committing dacoit was a referred to as “Awadhoot”. This Secret coded communication was limited to its personal use only. All the dacoity was under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil.
The first robbery was committed in a village of district Fatehpur. But the attempt failed. Instead the revolutionaries looted, some of the other rich families at other places and came out successful. Meanwhile the revolutionaries thoroughly ransacked the house and collected all the booty kept in the house. However these small engagements did not bring relief to the organization.
Even after the non-cooperation movement was suspended Azad used to be aggressive towards British rulership, vowing to obtain Independence at any cost and never to be caught by the British Government for any of his revolutionary deeds, which include his involvement in Kakori Train Robbery in 1926, in the attempt to blow up the Viceroy’s train in 1926 and also shooting of Saunders at Lahore in 1928 in retaliation to what the British Government had done to Lala Lajpatrai.
Azad's Sacrificial Nature
Everyone was impressed by his dynamic personality, sacrificial nature, perseverance and strongly well built physique, practiced Mallakhamba, a traditional Indian sport wherein the performer executes aerial postures on a vertical wooden pole. He was in favor of observing strict discipline. It was so hard that his colleagues would sometime find it quite difficult to withstand the rules and regulations of him. He possessed an ideal character. This was the reason he was a successful leader. He had his heart and soul trying to make the country independent.
Azad tried to overcome all his difficulties through perseverance and in a peaceful manner. On April 8th of 1929, at Delhi the British Government launched a new terror tactic. It tried to introduce the Public safety bill and trade disputes bill, if had been these two bills came into force that would have meant the curtailment of people’s freedom. The central committee of the revolutionary force decided that, the day, this bill takes the shape of an act by an order promulgated by the Viceroy, the assembly should be bombed in protest. This compelled independence activists to open up factories were opened at many places to manufacture bombs. Bigger factories were established at places like Agra, Lahore, Saharanpur and Calcutta. It was also decided at the meeting that issue of public statement only should be undertaken by the party for action.
Azad’s Last Battle
On February 27th of 1931, Chandra Shekhar Azad had been to meet Sukhdev at Alfred park at Allahabad to discuss some important matter. While he was in discussion with Sukhdev based on Veerbhadra Tiwari’s information to police, he was ambushed by around 80 British Police officers. There was about thirty minutes of firing between both parties. The all of a sudden a bullet came whizzing and found its mark into the thigh of Azad, in retaliation he fired back to the police vehicle and he killed three officers and wounded more than ten officers. He fought tooth and nail and put up a brave defense and nearly fought for nearly half an hour forcing the police team to take up a defensive position and lick dust.
There was one last bullet in Azad’s pistol so he shot himself by his own, because he didn't wanted to get killed by any British Soldier. His body was sent to Rasulabad Ghat for cremation ceremony. Even now its displayed in Allahabad museums so he was one of the great freedom fighter of our country.
Short Note - Information
- Birth Name ( original name ) - Chandra Shekhar Tiwari
- Born - 23 July 1906 Bhavra, Alirajpur, Central India Agency
- Died - 27 February 1931 (aged 24) Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
- Other Names - Azad
- Occupation - Revolutionary leader, freedom fighter, political activist
- Organization - Hindustan Republican Association (later on Hindustan Socialist Republican Association)
- Political Movement - Indian Independence Movement
- Religion - Hinduism
- Achievements -
- Kakori Train Robbery (1926),
- The shooting of British police officer John Saunders (1928) to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpatrai.
Questions and Answers
Q 1. Consider the following statements about Chandrashekhar Azad.
- He was member of Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)
- He was not the part of Non-cooperation movement
Which of the following statements is/are true?
a) 1 & 2
b) Only 1
c) Only 2
d) None of these
Q 2. Who changed the name of Hindustan Republic Association (HRA) to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) ?
a) Bhagat Singh
b) Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
c) Ram Prasad Bismil
d) Chandrashekhar Azad
Q 3. Where does Chandrashekhar Azad cremation took place?
a) Rasulabad Ghat
b) Raj Ghat
c) Vijay Ghat
d) None of these